Signs and symptoms according to Framingham criteria for the diagnosis of heart failure.
The echocardiographic finding of premature mitral valve closure or other signs of elevated diastolic pressures has been considered equivalent to the presence of heart failure.
Acute circulatory failure in sepsis with concomitant persistent arterial hypotension (systolic blood pressure under 90 mmHg or mean blood pressure under 65 mmHg) which needs vasopressors despite volume overload or in the presence of serum lactic acid increase over 2 mmol/L.
Presence of either abscess, pseudoaneruism, or fistula.
- Abscess: perivalvular cavity with necrosis and purulent material not communicating with cardiovascular lumen. Thickened, non-homogeneous perivalvular area with echodense or echolucent appearance, ando no Doppler signal inside.
- Pseudoaneurysm; perivalvular cavity communicating with the cardiovascular lumen.
- Fistula: communication between two neighbouring cavities through a perforation.
Left ventricular ejection fraction by echocardiogram under 45%.